Recent Projects by Wingra Engineering



Wingra Evaluates Power Plant Compliance with New SO2 Air Quality Standard

SO2 Modeling ExampleOn June 2, 2010, EPA lowered the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for sulfur dioxide (SO2). The new standard is expected to improve public health protection, especially for children, the elderly, and people with asthma.  In 2011, Wingra Engineering evaluated over fifty U.S. power plants to help USEPA, state and local air agencies identify facilities not complying with the new air quality standard. The power plants were located in numerous states including Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, New York, Connecticut, Maryland,Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, Washington, D.C., Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin, Missouri, Kansas and Nebraska.

Dispersion modeling analyses were conducted following USEPA approved procedures. Computer models included AERSURFACE to evaluate land use, AERMAP to evaluate terrain elevations, AERMET to process recent meteorological data, and AERMOD to predict down wind concentrations. Operating scenarios were based on
SO2 emissions approved by the most recent air quality permit and historical actual emissions as measured by continuous emission monitors on the boiler stacks. Air pollution emission reductions necessary to comply with the new standard were calculated and predicted air pollutant concentrations were over laid onto regional and local maps to help present the modeling results to regulatory agencies and the general public.

Wingra Obtains Environmental Approvals for Wine Bottle Manufacturing Plant in WashingtonWine

In 2010, Wingra Engineering coordinated environmental approvals to re-open a wine bottle manufacturing plant in Kalama, Washington. The existing glass furnace was replaced with a new electrically-assisted, oxygen-fired melting furnace which reduced nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions by 90% compared to traditional container glass furnaces. Wingra worked with the German furnace and air pollution control system manufacturers to assure compliance with federal, state and local air pollution control requirements. The project design reduced emissions below minor air pollution source thresholds so only local permit approval by the Southwest Clean Air Agency was required. Besides obtaining the local air quality permit, Wingra verified the project met state environmental policy act requirements. The plant is expected to open during the summer of 2012.

Wingra Helps Develop Environmental Management System in Wisconsin

In 2009, Wingra Engineering worked with a coated and insulated glass manufacturer in Wisconsin to help develop their Environmental Management System or EMS. Each activity at the facility was reviewed to determine raw material and energy consumption; environmental impacts include waste generation and pollution discharges; applicable laws and regulations; and, compliance with these requirements. Past improvements were documented and goals for future improvements were outlined. This summary of environmental impacts and register of legislation became the starting point for the company's EMS.

Wingra Evaluates Sites for New Manufacturing Plant in Southwest U.S.

In 2008, Wingra Engineering investigated the air pollution control requirements for potential sites of a new flat glass and solar photovoltaic cell manufacturing plant in the southwest U.S. including Arizona, New Mexico and Nevada. The evaluation considered the air pollution emissions from the facility; jurisdictions of local and state air pollution control agencies; proximity of nonattainment areas which did not comply with air quality standards; and, nearby national parks and wilderness areas. Additional air pollution control measures were developed by Wingra and then incorporated into the project to reduce discharges and expand the range of acceptable plant locations.

Wingra Obtains Air Quality Permit for Foundry Expansion in Tennessee

In 2007, Wingra Engineering obtained an air quality permit from the Tennessee Department of Environmental Conservation for the expansion of an iron foundry in Etowah, Tennessee. New electric furnaces and casting lines with a capacity of 60 tons per hour would be constructed. Beside the state air pollution control agency, Wingra worked with the National Park Service and U.S. Forest Service to assure protection of sensitive areas such as Smokey Mountains National Park. The new equipment required approval under the
Prevention of Significant Deterioration or PSD major source regulations. Wingra prepared a permit application for the project that included an evalution of state-of-the-art air pollution control measures and dispersion modeling analyses to verify compliance with air quality standards.

Wingra Obtains Air Quality Permit for Coal-Fired Lime Kiln in Wisconsin

In 2006, Wingra Engineering successfully obtained an air quality permit for a new 650 ton per day coal-fired lime kiln to be located in Superior, Wisconsin. The kiln was subject to the Prevention of Significant Deterioration air quality regulations including an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology (BACT) and near-field air quality impacts. All air pollutants were controlled using BACT  or state-of-the-art air pollution control methods. These included the use of a fabric filter baghouse for the capture of dust from the kiln and materials handling operations, and use of low sulfur coal and a preheater type kiln to neutralize sulfur dioxide emissions by 92%. Combustion related air pollutants including nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide were controlled by the use of a preheater lime kiln which reduced both energy usage and resulting stack emissions by over 30% compared to the conventional lime kilns. The project was designed to assure nearby air quality impacts were insignificant for all air pollutants. Approval was obtained from the U.S. Forest Service by demonstrating that impacts on nearby Class I Air Quality Areas including the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness and the Rainbow Lake Wilderness were insignificant.

Wingra Receives Approval of First Combined Risk Analysis

Wisconsin hazardous air pollutant requirements under Chapter NR 445, Wis. Adm. Code, were recently changed to allow use of a combined risk analysis as a compliance method for carcinogenic air pollutants. In 2005, Wingra Engineering received the first Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources approval of a combined risk analysis for discharges from an iron foundry. A comprehensive emissions inventory was compiled for 16 individual contaminants released from 82 foundry operations, emergency generators and natural gas combustion. To simplify the analysis, emissions from each discharge point were reduced to an equivalent quantity of benzene emissions, referred to as “TEQ as Benzene”. The analysis verified that the estimated cumulative risk due to foundry operations was less than the 10 x 10-6 requirement. A technical paper on the techniques used for this project was presented at the national conference of the Air & Waste Management Association in 2006. An abstract and full text of the paper are available on the Wingra web site.

Wingra Successfully Challenges Air Permit Issuance

In 2005, Wingra provided expert witness services to represent neighborhood residents challenging issuance of an air quality construction permit for melting furnaces at an aluminum die caster and foundry. During a five day contested case hearing, it was demonstrated that close proximity of residents to the foundry required more accurate dispersion modeling procedures. The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources had failed to consider the effects of the downwash recirculation cavity, terrain and fugitive emissions from open doors and windows. As a result, facility discharges violated air quality standards in the backyards of surrounding homes. In his decision, the hearing examiner amended the permit to require the foundry to eliminate all fugitive emissions and operate two air quality monitors in areas predicted to exceed air quality standards. Rather than implement these additional air pollution control measures, the company subsequently had the DNR revoke the permit.

Wingra obtains Air Quality Approvals

for a Washington State Float Glass Plant

near Mount Rainier and Olympic National Parks

In 2004, Wingra Engineering successfully obtained air quality permits for a 650 ton per day float glass plant in Washington State. This plant used a 200 mmbtu per hour natural gas fired regenerative furnace to melt sand, limestone and other raw materials to generate a continuous 16 foot wide ribbon of flat glass for windows and other glass applications. The project required approval by the local air quality agency, Washington Department of Ecology, and oversight by the U.S Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Forest Service, and National Park Service. Locating a new air pollution source near national parks and wilderness areas increases the need for a more thorough evaluation of air quality impacts and available emission control methods.

The project required issuance of a Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) air quality permit requirements including an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology (BACT) and near-field air quality impacts. As BACT, the plant was equipped with air pollution control systems for the control of PM, SO2 and NOx emissions. A spray drier - electrostatic precipitator was used to control PM and SO2 emissions. NOx was controlled using the 3R Process, a combustion technique unique to regenerative furnace float glass plants which uses excess natural gas to create a reducing atmosphere, similar to the reburn process used in coal-fired boilers.

Due to complex terrain near the project site, a more accurate near-field modeling analysis was conducted using the AERMOD dispersion model and meteorological data collected near the site. Project impacts were below the significant impact levels for all air pollutants except NOx. As a result, a regional inventory of NOx emissions sources was developed to model the combined impact from the project and surrounding emission sources, and verify compliance with air quality standards.

As Washington State does not have a SIP-approved PSD program, USEPA Region 10 provided additional review to verify compliance with the PSD regulations.

The project was located within 200 kilometers of seven Class I air quality areas including Mount Rainier and Olympic National Parks. A separate evaluation was required by the National Park Service and U.S. Forest Service to assess far-field impacts on air quality standards, and air quality related values including regional visibility and acid deposition. Far-field impacts were estimated using the CALPUFF model. The project was determined to have insignificant impacts for all air quality standards and AQRV.

While prior float glass projects elsewhere in the U.S. had established BACT for the industry without the use of add-on control equipment, the proximity to the Class I areas required greater control of plant air pollution emissions. Additional control measures included use of a spray drier-electrostatic precipitator control system for glass furnace PM and SO2 emissions and a selective catalytic reduction system to control NOx emissions from backup emergency generator.

A technical paper on the techniques used for this project was presented at the national conference of the Air & Waste Management Association in 2006. An abstract and full text of the paper are available on the Wingra web site.


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